دانلود رایگان مجموعه مقالات علمی اشپرینگر در زمینه منطق فازی — بخش چهل و هفتم

منطق فازی (Fuzzy Logic) اولین بار در پی تنظیم نظریه مجموعه‌های فازی به وسیله پروفسور لطفی زاده (۱۹۶۵ میلادی) در صحنه محاسبات نو ظاهر شد. در واقع منطق فازی از منطق ارزش‌های «صفر و یک» نرم‌افزارهای کلاسیک فراتر رفته و درگاهی جدید برای دنیای علوم نرم‌افزاری و رایانه‌ها می‌گشاید، زیرا فضای شناور و نامحدود بین اعداد صفر و یک را نیز در منطق و استدلال‌های خود به کار می‌گیرد. در ادامه مقالات علمی انتشارات بین المللی اشپرینگر (Springer) در زمینه منطق فازی (Fuzzy Logic) برای دانلود آمده است. می توانید برای دانلود هر یک از مقالات از سرور دانلود متلب سایت، بر روی لینک دانلود هر یک از آن ها، کلیک کنید.

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دانلود رایگان مجموعه مقالات علمی اشپرینگر در زمینه منطق فازی — فهرست اصلی

عنوان اصلی مقاله Inheritance of attributes in natural concept conjunctions
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان James A. Hampton
چکیده / توضیح Attributes defining pairs of concepts (e.g., SPORTS-GAMES) and their conjunctions (e.g., SPORTS THAT ARE ALSO GAMES) were generated and rated for their importance for defining each concept and conjunction. The results support a model in which a composite prototype for the conjunction is formed as the union of the constituent attribute sets, subject to two constraints: (1) attributes must have a sufficiently high average importance across the two concepts, and (2) necessity and impossibility of attributes is always inherited. In regression analyses, those concepts identified by Hampton (1985b) as being dominant in determining item typicality in conjunctions were again dominant in determining attribute importance and also had greater numbers of important attributes. There was limited evidence of noncompositionality for familiar concept conjunctions. Finally, degree of conflict between the attributes of one concept and those of the other had an independent effect on attribute importance for conjunctions.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله A pattern recognition account of decision making
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Dominic W. Massaro
چکیده / توضیح In the domain of pattern recognition, experiments have shown that perceivers integrate multiple sources of information in an optimal manner. In contrast, other research has been interpreted to mean that decision making is nonoptimal. As an example, Tversky and Kahneman (1983) have shown that subjects commit a conjunction fallacy because they judge it more likely that a fictitious person named Linda is a bank teller and a feminist than just a bank teller. This judgment supposedly violates probability theory, because the probability of two events can never be greater than the probability of either event alone. The present research tests the hypothesis that subjects interpret this judgment task as a pattern recognition task. If this hypothesis is correct, subjects’ judgments should be described accurately by the fuzzy logical model of perception (FLMP)—a successful model of pattern recognition. In the first experiment, the Linda task was extended to an expanded factorial design with five vocations and five avocations. The probability ratings were described well by the FLMP and described poorly by a simple probability model. The second experiment included (1) two fictitious people, Linda and Joan, as response alternatives and (2) both ratings and categorization judgments. Although the ratings were accurately described by both the FLMP and an averaging of the sources of information, the categorization judgments were described better by the FLMP. These results reveal important similarities in recognizing patterns and in decision making. Given that the FLMP is an optimal method for combining multiple sources of information, the probability judgments appear to be optimal in the same manner as pattern-recognition judgments.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Analyzing experimental data using the Rasch model
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Tom Verguts, Paul De Boeck, Gert Storms
چکیده / توضیح We present a method for studying experimental data based on a psychometric model, the “Rasch model” (Rasch, 1966; Thissen & Steinberg, 1986). We illustrate the method with the use of a data set in the field of concept research. More specifically, we investigate whether a conjunctive concept can be seen as an additive combination of its constituents. High correlations between model and data are obtained, but a formal goodness-of-fit test indicates that the model does not completely account for the data. We then alter the Rasch model in such a way as to capture our idea of why the model deviates from the data. This results in higher correlations and a strong increase in goodness-of-fit. It is concluded that our ideas, as incorporated in the model, adequately summarize the data. More generally, this research illustrates that applying the Rasch model and altering it according to one’s hypotheses is an excellent way to analyze experimental data.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Motion pattern and posture: Correctly assessed by calibrated accelerometers
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Friedrich Foerster, Jochen Fahrenberg
چکیده / توضیح Basic motion patterns and posture can be distinguished by multichannel accelerometry, as recently shown. A refinement of this method appeared to be desirable to further increase its effectiveness, especially to distinguish walking and climbing stairs, and body rotation during sleep. Recordings were made of 31 subjects, according to a standard protocol comprising 13 motions and postures. This recording was repeated three times with appropriate permutation. Five uni-axial sensors and three sites of placement (sternum with three axes, right and left thigh) were selected. A hierarchical classification strategy used a standard protocol (i. e., individual reference patterns) to distinguish subtypes of moving behaviors and posture. The analysis method of the actometer signals reliably detected 13 different postural and activity conditions (only 3.2 % misclassifications). A minimum set of sensors can be found for a given application; for example, a two-sensor configuration would clearly suffice to differentiate between four basic classes (sitting, standing, lying, moving) in ambulatory monitoring.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله The computer as a metaphor for psychological inquiry: Considerations and recommendations
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Dominic W. Massaro
چکیده / توضیح My concern is with the computer as a metaphor for explaining perception and action. A representative sample of arguments for and against the paradigm are presented and evaluated. The conclusion is that the idea of computation is productive for achieving a functionalist description of how we perceive and act. This level of description can contribute to our understanding independently of description achieved at the levels of neurophysiology and phenomenology. Some of the perceived limitations in the computational method rest on the assumption that the symbolic level must be discrete and abstract. In fact, worthwhile explanations within the information processing framework utilize continuous, modality-specific processes and representations as explanatory devices. One suggestion for a movement from the discrete to the continuous mode is advised to bring computational theories in line with the psychological phenomena they describe. Various alternatives to the computational framework are considered and found to be inadequate substitutes. An example of research is used to demonstrate the value of the continuous mode and the computational level of explanation.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله VTLOGANL: Coding and analyzing videotaped data
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Jeffrey B. Hecht, Nicole K. Roberts
چکیده / توضیح Researchers using videotape as a primary means of data collection need flexible yet easy-to-use procedures and equipment for the time-consuming task of coding and analysis. The VTLOGANL program (for VideoTape LOGging ANaLysis) slaves a video deck to the computer system, allowing the researcher to code, in real time, video-recorded events of either a pulsed or duration nature. VTLOGANL’s innovative database design frees the researcher to define up to 9,999 different codewords for each project, organizing any combination of up to 30 of those codewords for each elapsed second of logging time. Reporting features, including data export and import, allow the researcher to examine quickly questions of codeword frequency, event duration, sequencing, and overlap, according to the requirements of the research design.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله A fuzzy system for mapping worker attributes to tasks
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان J. Philip Craiger, Michael D. Coovert
چکیده / توضیح We developed a prototype of a rule-based expert system that facilitates a mapping from tasks comprising a job to the knowledge, skills, and abilities (KSAs) ostensibly required to perform the tasks. A variant of fuzzy logic was employed in the inference process. Signal detection theory was used to evaluate the performance of the system. The results indicated that the system performed well in terms of its ability to discriminate between the KSAs that are required of a task and those that are not. The discussion focuses on implications of the system and its use as an intelligent assistant in human resources planning.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Computerized fuzzy ratings: The concept of a fuzzy class
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Tim Hesketh, Beryl Hesketh
چکیده / توضیح In this paper, we outline the concept of a fuzzy class used in programs for eliciting computerized fuzzy ratings. Fuzzy ratings allow respondents to provide symmetrical or asymmetrical latitudes of acceptance around a preferred point. These ratings have been used in research testing career theories and person-environment fit models. The variables defining the fuzzy class and the various functions that can be performed by it are described in the paper. The idea of a fuzzy class may be of interest to those involved in expert systems, knowledge engineering, or in fuzzy classification and measurement in general. A program, FUZRATE, written in object-oriented C++ code that uses the concept of a fuzzy class, is available on request. Both source code and a binary (executable) file are available.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Statistical analysis of fuzzy-set data from neuronal networks
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Frederick J. Bremner, Michael Yost, Victoria T. Nasman
چکیده / توضیح In this study, we describe the process of transforming neuron polarization values that meet the assumptions of ratio data into ordinal data. This is a crisp-to-fuzzy set transformation. A computerized simulation of the application of this process is discussed and nonparametric methods of analyzing fuzzy-set data are presented.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Integrating speech information across talkers, gender, and sensory modality: Female faces and male voices in the McGurk effect
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Kerry P. Green, Patricia K. Kuhl, Andrew N. Meltzoff, Erica B. Stevens
چکیده / توضیح Studies of the McGurk effect have shown that when discrepant phonetic information is delivered to the auditory and visual modalities, the information is combined into a new percept not originally presented to either modality. In typical experiments, the auditory and visual speech signals are generated by the same talker. The present experiment examined whether a discrepancy in the gender of the talker between the auditory and visual signals would influence the magnitude of the McGurk effect. A male talker’s voice was dubbed onto a videotape containing a female talker’s face, and vice versa. The gender-incongruent videotapes were compared with gender-congruent videotapes, in which a male talker’s voice was dubbed onto a male face and a female talker’s voice was dubbed onto a female face. Even though there was a clear incompatibility in talker characteristics between the auditory and visual signals on the incongruent videotapes, the resulting magnitude of the McGurk effectwas not significantly different for the incongruent as opposed to the congruent videotapes. The results indicate that the mechanism for integrating speech information from the auditory and the visual modalities is not disrupted by a gender incompatibility even when it is perceptually apparent. The findings are compatible with the theoretical notion that information about voice characteristics of the talker is extracted and used to normalize the speech signal at an early stage of phonetic processing, prior to the integration of the auditory and the visual information.
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