دانلود رایگان مجموعه مقالات علمی اشپرینگر در زمینه منطق فازی — بخش چهل و ششم

منطق فازی (Fuzzy Logic) اولین بار در پی تنظیم نظریه مجموعه‌های فازی به وسیله پروفسور لطفی زاده (۱۹۶۵ میلادی) در صحنه محاسبات نو ظاهر شد. در واقع منطق فازی از منطق ارزش‌های «صفر و یک» نرم‌افزارهای کلاسیک فراتر رفته و درگاهی جدید برای دنیای علوم نرم‌افزاری و رایانه‌ها می‌گشاید، زیرا فضای شناور و نامحدود بین اعداد صفر و یک را نیز در منطق و استدلال‌های خود به کار می‌گیرد. در ادامه مقالات علمی انتشارات بین المللی اشپرینگر (Springer) در زمینه منطق فازی (Fuzzy Logic) برای دانلود آمده است. می توانید برای دانلود هر یک از مقالات از سرور دانلود متلب سایت، بر روی لینک دانلود هر یک از آن ها، کلیک کنید.

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دانلود رایگان مجموعه مقالات علمی اشپرینگر در زمینه منطق فازی — فهرست اصلی

عنوان اصلی مقاله Oil formation volume factor modeling: Traditional vs. Stochastically optimized neural networks
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Parisa Bagheripour, Mojtaba Asoodeh, Ali Asoodeh
چکیده / توضیح Oil formation volume factor (FVF) is considered as relative change in oil volume between reservoir condition and standard surface condition. FVF, always greater than one, is dominated by reservoir temperature, amount of dissolved gas in oil, and specific gravity of oil and dissolved gas. In addition to limitations on reliable sampling, experimental determination of FVF is associated with high costs and time-consumption. Therefore, this study proposes a novel approach based on hybrid genetic algorithm-pattern search (GA-PS) optimized neural network (NN) for fast, accurate, and cheap determination of oil FVF from available measured pressure-volume-temperature (PVT) data. Contrasting to traditional neural network which is in danger of sticking in local minima, GA-PS optimized NN is in charge of escaping from local minima and converging to global minimum. A group of 342 data points were used for model construction and a group of 219 data points were employed for model assessment. Results indicated superiority of GA-PS optimized NN to traditional NN. Oil FVF values, determined by GA-PS optimized NN were in good agreement with reality.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Coherence-driven resolution of referential ambiguity: A computational model
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Stefan L. Frank, Mathieu Koppen, Leo G. M. Noordman, Wietske Vonk
چکیده / توضیح We present a computational model that provides a unified account of inference, coherence, and disambiguation. It simulates how the build-up of coherence in text leads to the knowledge-based resolution of referential ambiguity. Possible interpretations of an ambiguity are represented bycenters of gravity in a high-dimensional space. The unresolved ambiguity forms a vector in the same space. This vector is attracted by the centers of gravity, while also being affected by context information and world knowledge. When the vector reaches one of the centers of gravity, the ambiguity is resolved to the corresponding interpretation. The model accounts for reading time and error rate data from experiments on ambiguous pronoun resolution and explains the effects of context informativeness, anaphor type, and processing depth. It shows how implicit causality can have an early effect during reading. A novel prediction is that ambiguities can remain unresolved if there is insufficient disambiguating in formation.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Ability in perceiving nonnative contrasts: Performance on natural and synthetic speech stimuli
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Peter C. Gordon, Lisa Keyes, Yiu-Fai Yung
چکیده / توضیح The perception of the distinction between /r/ and /l/ by native speakers of American English and of Japanese was studied using natural and synthetic speech. The American subjects were all nearly perfect at recognizing the natural speech sounds, whereas there was substantial variation among the Japanese subjects in their accuracy of recognizing /r/ and /l/ except in syllable-final position. A logit model, which additively combined the acoustic information conveyed byF1-transition duration and byF3-onset frequency, provided a good fit to the perception of synthetic /r/ and /l/ by the American subjects. There was substantial variation among the Japanese subjects in whether theF1 andF3 cues had a significant effect on their classifications of the synthetic speech. This variation was related to variation in accuracy of recognizing natural /r/ and /l/, such that greater use of both theF1 cue and theF3 cue in classifying the synthetic speech sounds was positively related to accuracy in recognizing the natural sounds. However, multiple regression showed that use of theF1 cue did not account for significant variance in natural speech performance beyond that accounted for by theF3 cue, indicating that theF3 cue is more important than theF1 cue for Japanese speakers learning English. The relation between performance on natural and synthetic speech also provides external validation of the logit model by showing that it predicts performance outside of the domain of data to which it was fit.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Hierarchical categorization of coarticulated phonemes: A theoretical analysis
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Roel Smits
چکیده / توضیح This article is concerned with the question of how listeners recognize coarticulated phonemes. The problem is approached from a pattern classification perspective. First, the potential acoustical effects of coarticulation are defined in terms of the patterns that form the input to a classifier. Next, a categorization model called HICAT is introduced that incorporates hierarchical dependencies to optimally deal with this input. The model allows the position, orientation, and steepness of one phoneme boundary to depend on the perceived value of a neighboring phoneme. It is argued that, if listeners do behave like statistical pattern recognizers, they may use the categorization strategies incorporated in the model. The HICAT model is compared with existing categorization models, among which are the fuzzylogical model of perception and Nearey’s diphone-biased secondary-cue model. Finally, a method is presented by which categorization strategies that are likely to be used by listeners can be predicted from distributions of acoustical cues as they occur in natural speech.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Mandarin speech perception by ear and eye follows a universal principle
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Trevor H. Chen, Dominic W. Massaro
چکیده / توضیح In this study, the nature of speech perception of native Mandarin Chinese was compared with that of American English speakers, using synthetic visual and auditory continua (from /ba/ to /da/) in an expanded factorial design. In Experiment 1, speakers identified synthetic unimodal and bimodal speech syllables as either /ba/ or /da/. In Experiment 2, Mandarin speakers were given nine possible response alternatives. Syllable identification was influenced by both visual and auditory sources of information for both Mandarin and English speakers. Performance was better described by the fuzzy logical model of perception than by an auditory dominance model or a weighted-averaging model. Overall, the results are consistent with the idea that although there may be differences in information (which reflect differences in phonemic repertoires, phonetic realizations of the syllables, and the phonotactic constraints of languages), the underlying nature of audiovisual speech processing is similar across languages.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Word frequency of irrelevant speech distractors affects serial recall
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Axel Buchner, Edgar Erdfelder
چکیده / توضیح In this study, participants memorized frequent or rare target words in silence or while ignoring frequent or rare distractor words. Distractor words impaired recall performance, but low-frequency distractor words caused more impairment than did high-frequency distractor words. We demonstrate how to solve the identifiability problem for Schweickert’s (1993) multinomial processing tree model of immediate recall, and then use this model to show that irrelevant speech affected both the probability with which intact target word representations were available for serial recall and the probability of successful reconstruction of item identities based on degraded short-term memory traces. However, the type of irrelevant speech—low- versus high-frequency words—fselectively affected the probability of intact target word representations. These results are consistent with an explanation of the irrelevant speech effect within the framework proposed by Cowan (1995), and they pose problems for other explanations of the irrelevant speech effect. The analyses also confirm the validity of Schweickert’s process model.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Measuring daily behavior using ambulatory accelerometry: The Activity Monitor
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان J. B. J. Bussmann, W. L. J. Martens, J. H. M. Tulen, F. C. Schasfoort, H. J. G. van den Berg-Emons, H. J. Stam
چکیده / توضیح Advanced ambulatory systems that measure aspects of overt human behavior during normal daily life have become feasible, owing to developments in data recording and sensor technology. One such instrument is the Activity Monitor (AM). This paper provides a technical description of the AM and information about its validity and current applications. The AM is based on ambulatory accelerometry, the aim of which is to assess postures and motions for long-term (>24-h) measurement periods during normal daily life. Accelerometers are attached to the thighs, trunk, and lower arms, and signals are continuously stored in a digital portable recorder. In the postmeasurement analysis, postures and motions are detected by means of custom-made software programs. Validity studies performed on different populations showed high agreement scores between the computerized and automatic AM output and the visually analyzed video recordings. The AM has so far been applied in rehabilitation, psychophysiology, and cardiology but has many possibilities in behavioral research.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Assessing the informational value of parameter estimates in cognitive models
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Tom Verguts, Gert Storms
چکیده / توضیح Mathematical models of cognition often contain unknown parameters whose values are estimated from the data. A question that generally receives little attention is how informative such estimates are. In a maximum likelihood framework, standard errors provide a measure of informativeness. Here, a standard error is interpreted as the standard deviation of the distribution of parameter estimates over multiple samples. A drawback to this interpretation is that the assumptions that are required for the maximum likelihood framework are very difficult to test and are not always met. However, at least in the cognitive science community, it appears to be not well known that standard error calculation also yields interpretable intervals outside the typical maximum likelihood framework. We describe and motivate this procedure and, in combination with graphical methods, apply it to two recent models of categorization: ALCOVE (Kruschke, 1992) and the exemplar-based random walk model (Nosofsky & Palmeri, 1997). The applications reveal aspects of these models that were not hitherto known and bring a mix of bad and good news concerning estimation of these models.
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Disjunction of natural concepts
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان James A. Hampton
چکیده / توضیح Two experiments investigated the way in which the rated membership of items in disjunctively defined categories, such as FRUITS OR VEGETABLES and PETS OR FARMYARD ANIMALS, varies as a function of membership in individual constituent categories. Items were rated for category membership and typicality in each category separately, and in their disjunction. The results showed non-Boolean effects of both overextension and underextension of the disjunctions. Typicality in the disjunction was highly predictable from constituent typicality values, using regression equations with negative interaction terms. The results are compared with similar effects for concept conjunctions and are discussed in terms of an intensional model of conceptual combination (Hampton, 1987b, 1988).
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عنوان اصلی مقاله Semantic constraints and judged preference for interpretations of ambiguous sentences
نوع مقاله مقاله ژورنال
نویسندگان Gregg C. Oden
چکیده / توضیح It is proposed that the degree of sensibleness of sentences is determined by semantic constraints which may be more or less satisfied. Such continuous semantic constraints were examined in two experiments in which subjects judged the likelihood of obtaining each of the interpretations of ambiguous sentences. The sentences were factorially generated by independently varying the degree to which semantic constraints for each interpretation were satisfied. In one experiment, the semantic constraints were manipulated by varying critical words within the ambiguous sentence; in the other experiment, a preceding context sentence was used. The results of both experiments supported the hypotheses that the judged likelihood was a direct function of the relative sensibleness of the interpretations, that semantic constraints determined the degree of sensibleness of each interpretation, and that these semantic constraints are continuous restrictions which are independent of each other and stable from sentence to sentence in which they occur.
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